What is tuberculosis?

This disease is often taken as a simple flu

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Every March 24, World TB Day is commemorated worldwide.

Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB) is an infection that is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infection usually affects the lungs. However, cases have been recorded in which it also affects other organs.
It is estimated that tuberculosis causes 1.5 million deaths annually globally.

This disease is usually transmitted through the air. When a person infected with tuberculosis coughs, sneezes, or spits, he or she expels tubercular bacilli into the air. These substances when present in the air can be easily inhaled by other people and cause them to become infected.

People who already have tuberculous bacilli increase the chances of contracting the disease by as much as 10%. Similarly, people who have a weakened immune system, malnutrition, diabetes or who smoke frequently are more likely to develop tuberculosis at some point.

When someone begins to develop tuberculosis, the symptoms gradually appear. The initial symptoms are usually as follows:

- A lot of coughs (sometimes accompanied by blood)

-Chest pain


-Constant fever

-Suders in the evenings

-Unexplained weight loss

Symptoms do not necessarily all have to come together. In most cases, the symptoms are mild for many months, which causes the infected person not to recognize that he has this infection. Unfortunately, when the person is found to have tuberculosis, it is very likely that the infection has already been transmitted to others through the air. Similarly, when someone is heard to cough or sneeze, the least that passes through the minds of others is that the person has tuberculosis. This spread of infection is more likely to be transmitted if the infected person is in a closed place where there is hardly adequate ventilation or open windows that allow fresh air to enter.

A person with active tuberculosis can infect between 10 and 15 people throughout a year. In addition, if the person is HIV-positive, they are at greater risk of developing the infection more quickly.


This infection usually affects adults in their most productive years of life. However, this does not mean that it can not affect people at another time in your life.

Those who are HIV - positive are 20 to 30 times more likely to develop tuberculosis actively. The combination of tuberculosis with HIV is lethal, since one increases the evolution of the other. Not only are people with HIV more likely to become infected, but also those with very low defenses or immune system problems.

As in other diseases, tobacco consumption actively increases up to 20% the possibility of developing tuberculosis.

In the case of tuberculosis, there are three categories: resistant, multiresistant and extremely resistant.

Resistant tuberculosis occurs when the infection is resistant to medications given to combat it. This is the one that comes off in multi and extremely sturdy.

In the case of the multiresistant, this occurs when the infection can not be combated with the two drugs that are usually more used to eradicate the condition. When a person has this type of tuberculosis, ideally not treated at any health center, but with someone who is skilled in this disease.

The one that is extremely resistant, is the less common type of tuberculosis, this one develops when the infection is resistant basically to almost all the medicines that are administered to the person to heal it. People who are infected with HIV or who have weakened the immune system, are at greater risk when diagnosed with this type. It is therefore paramount, always contact someone skilled in these cases.