Twenty percent of the human body is made up of protein. Protein plays a crucial role in almost all biological processes and amino acids are the building blocks of it. A large proportion of our cells, muscles and tissue is made up of amino acids, meaning they carry out many important bodily functions, such as giving cells their structure. They also play a key role in the transport and the storage of nutrients
Constructive metabolism; the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones
A descriptive term for a process, such as fermentation, that can proceed only in the absence of oxygen, or a living thing that can survive only in the absence of oxygen.
A chemical compound or substance that inhibits oxidation. Certain vitamins, such as vitamin E, are antioxidants and may protect body cells from damage caused by the oxidative effects of free radicals
A crystalline, water-soluble vitamin, C 10 H 16 O 3 N 2 of the vitamin B complex, that is present in all living cells and functions as a growth factor and as a catalyst in carboxylation reactions.
Body mass index (BMI)
An index for assessing overweight and underweight, obtained by dividing body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared: a measure of 25 or more is considered overweight.
Branched-chained amino acid
Essential nutrients that the body obtains from proteins found in food, especially meat, dairy products, and legumes. They include leucine, isoleucine, and valine. “Branched-chain” refers to the chemical structure of these amino acids.
A colorless crystalline acid, C 16 H 18 O 9, that is important in plant metabolism and is purportedly responsible for the browning or blackening of cut apples, potatoes, and other fruits and vegetables.
A ubiquinone C59H90O4 of humans and most other mammals that has a side chain with ten isoprenoid units and possesses antioxidant properties
A substance that consists of particles dispersed throughout another substance which are too small for resolution with an ordinary light microscope but are incapable of passing through a semipermeable membrane
Regimen or treatment to remove toxins and impurities from the body. A well-designed detox can help purge your liver, colon, and kidneys of toxins; clear your skin; boost your energy; and help you safely shed pounds.
A steroid hormone naturally produced by the adrenal glands and sold in synthetic form as a nutritional supplement.
Any of a number of disorders characterized by weakening, degeneration, or abnormal development of muscle.
A toxin that forms an integral part of the cell wall of certain bacteria and is only released upon destruction of the bacterial cell. Endotoxins are less potent and less specific than most exotoxins and do not form toxoids
The formation of an abnormal amount of fibrous tissue in an organ or part as the result of inflammation, irritation, or healing.
Folic acid is a part of the B complex of vitamins. It is vital for red blood cells and for many other cells in the body. The form of folic acid occurring naturally in food is called ‘folate’. Folic acid, along with vitamin B12, is important for formation of red blood cells.
An atom or molecule that bears an unpaired electron and is extremely reactive, capable of engaging in rapid chain reactions that destabilize other molecules and generate many more free radicals: in the body, deactivated by antioxidants, uric acid, and certain enzyme activities.
A nonessential amino acid that occurs widely in proteins and blood and other tissue and is metabolized to yield urinary ammonia. Also called glutaminic acid.
A system that ranks foods by the speeds at which their carbohydrates are converted into glucose in the body; a measure of the effects of foods on blood-sugar levels.
A healing crisis is when symptoms from diseases and toxins that are released during a detoxification process manifest themselves. Also known as "Herxheimer Reaction", a healing crisis occurs when toxins stored in the body are released at a faster rate than can be properly eliminated. The more toxic one's body is, the more severe the detoxification and the more intense the reaction. A healing crisis is characterized by a temporary increase in symptoms during a cleansing or detoxification process. Such symptoms may be mild or severe, depending on the body's original toxicity, but are definitely temporary.
A chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water.
A phytoestrogen produced chiefly by plants of the legume family, especially soybeans, potentially useful in lowering cholesterol and in treating some cancers and menopausal symptoms
A betaine commonly occurring in the liver and in skeletal muscle that is essential for fatty acid transport across mitochondrial membranes. It is considered a potent fat burner.
A compound of dextrin and maltose, used as a food additive and in some health and beauty products.
A process in which complex components, salts or other molecules are divided into smaller particles.
Hydrogen created within the reaction medium in the atomic form and having a high activity.
A descriptive term for a thing or condition that can cause disease.
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions, increasing with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing acidity. The pH scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14.
A compound found in red grapes, mulberries, peanuts, and certain plants, used medicinally as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.
Cells that upon division replaces its own numbers and also gives rise to cells that differentiate further into one or more specialized types, as various B cells and T cells.
A crystalline acid that is synthesized in the body from cysteine and methionine, is similar to amino acids but is not a component of proteins, and is involved in various physiological functions (as bile acid conjugation and cell membrane stabilization).
A poisonous substance, especially a protein, that is produced by living cells or organisms and is capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues but is often also capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies or antitoxins.
Any of various chemical elements, such as iron, manganese, zinc, copper, and iodine, that occur in very small amounts in organisms and are essential for many physiological and biochemical processes.